Sleep has a foundational healing effect on the body. When we sleep, our bodies replenish, heal, and grow in a variety of ways. Sleep boosts our immune system, helps us recover from injury, and improves our mood. When we are feeling ill, we are told to “sleep it off.” It is our body’s natural means of survival, and although humans can live for weeks without food and days without water, we can only last approximately 36 hours without sleep before our bodies begin to shut down.
This is important because, for a number of people, sleep can be incredibly difficult to achieve. Chronic insomnia affects 25 percent of adults and 50 percent of the elderly, with 95 percent of Americans experiencing insomnia at some point in their lives. In addition, people with insomnia who sleep less than six hours per night on average have a much higher risk of negative health outcomes. It is not so easy for them to just “sleep it off,” and not only because of psychological or environmental reasons.
Sleep disorders are defined by the Mayo Clinic as a change in the way you sleep, and they affect 50 to 70 million US residents, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC has asserted that sleep disorders are connected to many chronic illnesses, including cardiovascular problems and diabetes. The link between sleep and medical issues is undeniable, but let us examine more specific ways in which they relate.
Breathing: It’s Kinda Important…
One of the most common sleep disorders is sleep apnea, in which breathing during sleep is interrupted by pauses, or apneas, which can last 10 seconds or more. These apneas may occur five to 30 or more times per hour, reducing the amount of oxygen that circulates to the brain. According to the National Institutes of Health, more than 12 million Americans suffer from sleep apnea. It is more common in men, overweight people, and the elderly, as well as African-Americans, Latinos, and Pacific Islanders as compared to Caucasians.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a specific type of sleep-disordered breathing, in which the airway is blocked or collapsed, often by the soft tissue in the back of the throat. In particular, obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with nighttime heart attacks (91 percent), drug-resistant hypertension (83 percent), obesity (77 percent), congestive heart failure (76 percent), diabetes (72 percent), pacemakers (59 percent), and atrial fibrillation (49 percent). The estimated economic cost of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea in the United States was nearly $150 billion in 2015.
Sleeplessness has very direct results on the body. Sleep insufficiency changes the balance of hormones that regulate appetite and results in greater risks factors for type 2 diabetes, including excessive eating for energy and increased glucose levels and insulin resistance. A lack of sleep may also produces stress hormones that cause people’s bodies to remain in a state of alertness and increases blood pressure.
Sleep also produces white blood cells that protect the body from infectious diseases and viruses. A poor night’s sleep could mean catching a cold or something much worse. After only one night with four to five hours of sleep, critical anti-cancer immune cells decrease by 70 percent. In fact, the connection between sleep deficiency and cancer is so strong that the World Health Organization classifies nighttime shift work as a probable carcinogen.
In addition, the role of sleep in cardiovascular health cannot be overstated. During non-REM sleep phases, our heart rate drops and our blood pressure is reduced, which provides the organ with a much-needed break from its vital daytime work. Consequently, insufficient sleep causes blood pressure to increase, and sleeping six hours or less a night makes your risk of a fatal heart attack or stroke skyrocket 200 percent.
Julia Worrall is The Sleep RN, a critical care nurse of 20 years and the program director of the Airway Advocacy group, Foundation for Airway Health. Julia has presented her findings on sleep to the National Commission on Correctional Health Care and continues to push for more comprehensive sleep programs for frontline staff and people in the criminal justice system.